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The Biological Mechanics behind ADHD

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be termed as an early onset, which is a biological illness, specifically characterized by a number of symptoms, which include hyperactivity, lack of attention, and impulsivity. The three symptoms are at a continuous manner and develop at an inappropriate level. A child can be diagnosed with one of the three symptoms. These symptoms are mostly found in childhood before the age of seven years, and approximately 75% of children suffer from ADHD. It is strange that ADHD is more likely to occur in men more than in women (ADHD.ORG.nz). This is because a person with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder suffers from brain inattention. Therefore, the biological mechanics involves the brain.

A recent research describes what happens neurologically to the brain. It brings up the idea that the illness may affect a few areas of the brain (Durston 184). The following areas of the brain normally have various functions: Front lobes, inhibitors of the cortex, limbic system, system activating the reticular and many more. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder excessively lowers the activity of brainwave in children as compared to non-ADHD activity. This reduced brain activity shows the absence of cortex control. The absence of control evidences Attention Deficit illness in a child. The frontal lobes help us to be attentive to various tasks, concentrate and be focused, make the right decisions, and the ability to plan. They also offer assistance in behaving in an appropriate way for a given circumstance. Emotions such as anger, getting irritated, which are all brought about due to different types of Attention Deficit disorders, which probably arise, from prefrontal brain cortex. In addition, the mechanism of inhibition of the cortex aids us to avoid hyperactive behavior, saying things out of turn and getting mad unnecesarily. For example, this mechanism involved with inhibition of the cortex helps us to control our behaviors. It has been found that about 70% of how a person thinks is there to inhibit the 30% of the brain. If the mechanisms of inhibition for the brain do not work efficiently, we can then find the results of what may be referred to as “disinhibition disorder” which include impulsive behaviors, being quick-tempered, making poor decisions, hyperactivity. Our emotions are based on our limbic system and attention, which should be highly vigilant. Due to over activation of the limbic system, one may be involved in a wide mood swings, or even being quick-tempered. The person can also be “over-aroused,” touch everything around them, be quick-startled, or hypervigilant. When a limbic system is functioning normally, it provides normal emotional changes, an energy level, which is appropriate, normal sleeping routines, and a know-how of coping with stressful situations. A limbic system, which is not functioning accordingly, results to failures within internal regions (ADHD Information Library). A different study by the journal of Biology Psychiatry shows that medication for ADHD has a great effect on the brain functions, especially for kids with the disorder, although this can be alleviated using rewards and incentives. These are complementary and work to reduce the repercussions of the medication on the brain.

ADHD is known as the commonly experienced children’s brain illness in the UK. Children with the ADHD disorder, tend to be restless, impulsive, and distractible as they also go through many difficulties both in school and at home. Although there is no known cure for the condition, there is a way, which can be used to reduce symptoms by using medication-based therapy and behavior therapy. Methylphenidate, an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder drug, is perceived to bring up the level of brain dopamine. Dopamine is used to concentrate attention, as well as the brain’s reward and pleasure systems. The increase amplifies a given brain signal, which is measurable via an electroencephalogram (EEG). Up to now, it is not clear on how rewarding and offering of enticements influence the brain in the presence or absence of an extra drug. To act on this question, researchers at Nottingham’s Motivation Inhibition and Development in the study of ADHD (MIDAS) made a comparison of two markers particular of activity of the brain in relation to attention and impulsivity trying to find out on how medication and incentives affected them. The researchers found that when the children were given normal dose of methylphenidate, the kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder showed a better performance, if compared to those who did not take the drug - they were more attentive and had reduced impulsiveness. Activity of the brain seems to be normal the same way as the control group. On the other hand, motivational incentives also help to bring back the brain to normal, which improve attention and low impulsivity, but the effects were smaller than medication effects. If the kids were rewarded or penalised, it improved their attentiveness and self-control. It is believed that a combination of medication and incentives that were motivational made tasks seemed more pleasing and captured child’s attentiveness, involving their brain to a system of response control. Though both medication and behavior seem to have a different approach of treating ADHD, it is suggested that both may be having a common thing in terms of affecting the brain. They both help to normalize and other research, which are alike, that is, they can be more effective while used together (Durston 186).

The biology behind the behavior may be brought about by several disorders, which may mimic ADHD. This is because ADHD exists alone only for a short period before more disorders come up. These problems require different modes of treatment, which end up increasing the effect of how a person thinks. During the period when the ADHD exists alone, it is not easy for one to realize the symptoms of ADHD. In most cases of children diagnosed with ADHD do have an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The major symptoms of this disorder are a pattern of negative, being defiant, and hostile behavior towards others. It also displays the act of being inattentive and impulse behavior, they are all controlled by the mind. A Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) also follows ADHD where those diagnosed have symptoms such as depression and a mania, which at times appear at the same time. Children with a mania and ADHD experience more aggression, behavioral problems, and even emotional problems than those with ADHD alone. Another disorder is anxiety. Obsessive-compulsive is a disorder by its own, which has similar characteristics to those of ADHD and shares genetic components. Leslie Lanier’s research shows that ADHD results from a biological condition, which comes out of varying. These are yet to be scientifically defined neurological dysfunctions.

Traditionally, it is known that a part of brain, that is, the cortex (pre-frontal), which is located at the rear of the forehead, coordinates many Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behaviors, knowing that the inner brain part is linked with vital functions. These functions are problem-solving, making of decisions, reasoning, planning, and paying attention (Maloff). However, with neuroimaging techniques aid, neurologist, and neuroscientists have implemented additional neural mechanisms responsible for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms with precise accuracy. Various Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies for about two decades, shows a good difference in volume and structure between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and non-ADHD. Kids living in regions of Basal Ganglia have sub-cortical group of nuclei that receive inputs from all over the cerebral cortex but primarily from the front lobes - sections which control movement and cognitive functioning. A research done shows that caudate, putamen, globus pallidus all show volumetric measurement inconsistent results. 

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