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Theoretical Frameworks

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Hans Seye's stress model incorporates the elements of psychology, psychobiology, and physiology. The focus of this theoretical framework is the relationship between body responses and stress. The theory is purely physiological and explains everything that is happening to the human body under the influence of stress. 

Seye's model is called "General Adaptation Syndrome" and suggests that, when faced with stress, the human body will necessarily undergo three essential changes. These changes include: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion (Current Nursing, 2011). At the alarm stage, the human body mobilizes its resources to face stress; hormones are released into blood to respond to the new danger. At the resistance stage, the body remains on alert, although many physiological functions return to their normal levels. In the third stage, if the stressor keeps targeting the body, its resources are exhausted, making the individual vulnerable to disease and death (Current Nursing, 2010). The main concepts included in this theoretical framework are stress, stressor, adaptation, and resilience. Adaptation means that the human organism changes in response to stressors, while resilience enables the individual to recover quickly after stress (Current Nursing, 2010). The past research shows that this theoretical framework can be readily applied in the context of hypertension and the benefits of yoga in reducing blood pressure. This theoretical framework was used by Okonta (2012) to validate the utility of evidence-based yoga practices in the management of high blood pressure. I believe that this theoretical framework could help explain the impacts of yoga on blood pressure. Stress is claimed to be an essential contributor to hypertension, and the GAS model could be used to monitor changes in stress levels in the yoga group compared to the participants not listed in the program.

Another theoretical framework is the Diffusion of Innovation Theory. I think this theoretical framework could be used in the proposed study, because yoga is a complementary and innovative approach to managing blood pressure. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory explains the process by which individuals adopt and implement new ideas (Kaminski, 2011). The process includes five stages: knowledge (awareness); persuasion; decision; trial or implementation; and adoption or confirmation (Kaminski, 2011). One of the most crucial is the concept of peer networks, when the growing mass of early innovation adopters and opinion leaders fuel professional interest in innovative ideas and practices (Kaminski, 2011). The focus of the theory is in the way innovative approaches are adopted by professionals in their search of better professional outcomes. In case of nursing, the Diffusion of Innovations theory explains how new and innovative approaches are implemented to improve patients' health outcomes. This theoretical framework was used by Hyman et al. (2012) to explore the impacts of physicians' uncertainty on reducing blood pressure in uncontrolled hypertensives. Before Hyman et al. (2012), Wieck (1997) used the Diffusion theory in the conceptual framework to analyze hypertension in minority populations. I suppose that the proposed framework could help explain how physicians adopt complementary health practices to manage blood pressure in adults with uncontrolled hypertension.

The two theoretical frameworks are more complementary than similar. They target the two different aspects of blood pressure management through yoga. The GAS model can be used to monitor the process of physiological and psychological changes in the members of the yoga group. By contrast, the Diffusion of Innovation model could help explain the process of adopting yoga practices on the physicians', not patients' side. The Diffusion of Innovations theory can become a solid motivation to bring new treatment modalities into a hypertensive community. However, before it happens, the positive impacts of yoga on blood pressure need to be established. Therefore, Seye's theoretical framework is a better choice for the study that will explore the benefits of yoga in managing uncontrolled hypertension in adults. Once the results become clear, the Diffusion of Innovations Theory can be used as a guide to communicate the research findings with the purpose of changing the attitudes and health behaviors of adults with uncontrolled hypertension.

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