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Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis is a metabolic process whereby inorganic materials are turned to organic materials. Photosynthesis is geared by sunlight as well as the use of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The by-product of photosynthesis process is the oxygen.

Respiration refers to as the chemical process in an organism where oxygen is conveyed to cells and tissues, and as a result, carbon dioxide and water are given out. During respiration animals use oxygen produced by plants from the atmosphere as a by-product. Respiration process uses oxygen and as a result gives back carbon dioxide, which is used by the plants to process food (Hopkins & Hu%u0308ne, 2004).

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate; this is a molecule used in organisms to move muscles as well as powering of chemical reactions which ensure life sustenance. Sunlight helps plants in making of ATP. It is an energy source to create a cycle of chemical reactions with the use of carbon dioxide, and as a result oxygen is produced as a waste product. Animals then eat these plants, and the whole process is reversed with those nutrients by using the ATP as a source of energy. Our cells take these ingested nutrients from the plants, and through a cycle of chemical reactions, which involves oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product.

Fermentation in the food processing context is the process of breaking carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide. In many environments with lack of oxygen, a lot of organisms are able to metabolize glucose, thus producing ATP; this process is called fermentation. Through fermentation organisms are able to produce pyruvate through glycolysis, whereby these organisms obtains their ATP. However, the produced pyruvate is not oxidized but reduced. As a result of this reduction, NADH is oxidized; this NADH is important for glycolysis to go on even in absence of aerobic respiration (Mauseth, 2003).

In order for the living creatures to function properly a lot of energy is required. The energy is usually acquired from the food we eat. Through the cellular respiration the cells are able to break down the energy stored in the food. As a result of this process, the energy is produced in the form of ATP molecules. The sunlight enables the plants in the photosynthesis process, and during this process, they use part of ATP energy to produce sugar. Further, the sugar is broken down during the cellular respiration. Thus, this cycle continues all long the life of a plant.

Biological molecules (enzymes) speed up chemical reactions in the body by reducing the activation energy required in carrying out a reaction. Enzyme catalyzes a reaction through the following process. First, it starts by supplying necessary energy which speeds up a reaction, then it lowers the activation energy of a reaction; further, an enzyme lowers the G of a reaction. This G-reaction is the amount of energy that is free for work under any given condition. After lowering the G-reaction, the enzyme also lowers the equilibrium of a spatenous reaction. Finally, it ensures a rise the free energy of a reaction.

Three main enzyme substrate reactions include enzyme and substrate, which are formed in a chemical reaction. Moreover, in this chemical reaction substrate binds with the active parts of an enzyme. Finally, enzyme and product are created.

Regulation of an enzyme by the cells occurs when an ion, or even an organic chemical, binds to an enzyme site, and during the initial stages it changes the enzyme’s shape. Another way is when an ion or an organic chemical enters the active site of an enzyme. Further, it enters the enzyme for a reaction, inhibiting a true substrate. These two ways are the allosteric and completive inhibitions.

Ribosomes in prokaryotic are critical to their survival; prokaryotes comprise of bacteria and the archaea. They are freely found and are bound on the endoplasmic reticulum of a cytoplasm of a cell. Ribosome holds the responsibility of making proteins in the cell. The RNA incorporates a cycle of codons which inform the ribosomes on the sequence of the amino acids needed to make the proteins. Ribosomes are able to read and translate each codon by use of the RNA (Alberts, 2002).  After that it pairs it with an appropriate amino acid which is provided by the RNA. An RNA molecule of transfer contains anticodons, which are complementary on one end and the appropriate amino acid on the other. The ribosomal submit which is bound to RNA contained in the amino acids; therefore, almost all proteins in prokaryotic cells start with the codon AUG (Meneely & Willmann, 2009).

Cells of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic contain fragments of generic material in their structure. In prokaryotes cells are housed in the generic material contained in the nucleoid area of the cell, while in the eukaryotes the nucleus is seen. They cover their nucleus with a membrane. However, the nucleoid area within the prokaryotic does not have this membrane. Prokaryotic cells only contain one or two chromosomes in the nucleoid area. Eukaryotic cells usually pack their nucleic material in some proteins known as histones. These proteins make the information compact enough in such a case that they fit the small space. A cell of the prokaryotes lacks histones and as a result uses only a few chromosomes in housing its genomes (Kelly & Carr, 1984).

The Golgi apparatus is an organelle where made proteins are transported to. It is simply a flattened stack of tubular membranes that is found in eukaryotic cells.  The Golgi apparatus is involved in the package of the macromolecules which includes lipids and proteins. The GA resembles a stack of plates known as cisterns. A mammalian cell contains of around 40 to 100 stacks. Golgi enzymes are contained in each cistern, which helps modify the proteins that travel through the GA.

The GA may be perceived as a distributions center that sorts and packages material in the cell. The cell may also get rid of its waste by packing these substances and expelling them through the membrane. The GA transports the lipids and proteins to different parts of the cell to be used in the cellular functions. Proteins in smooth and rough endoplasmic membrane bud into bubble like vesicles and move to the Golgi complex through the cytoplasm. The GA further processes the compounds modifying the final stracture.The product is then extruded from the GA in a vesicle, right away to its final destination in or outside the cell.

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