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Cicero’s Observations on Roman Culture

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Marcus Cicero (106-43 B.C.E) was a lawyer, author, statesman and orator based in Rome.  He managed to display fierce patriotism, intelligence and high moral standards in his work.  However, this paper will analyze an excerpt that was extracted from the last chapter of his article, On the Commonwealth (54-51 B.C.E), which was written during the period when the Rome was dealing with the social and political conflicts.

This document is considered as a work of fiction, since the author uses imaginary characters who are engaged in a certain type of conversation to bring out the story. In the excerpt, it highlighted that the author uses an imaginary conversation between two military heroes to display the sense of destiny and moral values, which he considered to be the central to Rome’s greatness (Cicero, 10). In addition, the author has incorporated creativity within his work to provide a deeper understanding. For instance, during the dream, Publius Scipio sees his grandfather, Publius Africanus, pointing towards Carthage from a lofty spot, filled with stars that are glittering and brilliant (Cicero 11).

The use of fiction affects the manner in which this information is interpreted, such that it calls for more attention in order to be able to understand the message. While the use of fiction brings humor to the story, it calls for more attention, since it is possible to finish reading the story without getting the message. In works of fiction however, the author seeks to spread a certain message using imaginary characters and objects, which therefore calls for more concentration in order to understand whatever is being discussed.

In this excerpt, the information concerns Rome. It seeks to display the importance of peace considering the fact that the article was written at a time the country was dealing with political and social conflicts.  The author therefore highlights the sense of destiny and moral values, which to him were central to the country’s greatness.  In addition, the article highlights how Rome will conquer the smaller states that had already been brought under the Roman Empire, but were protesting. In the excerpt, describes this city as Carthage that had already been brought under the Roman Empire, but was constantly renewing its former wars and thus, had no peace (Cicero 11). It is after conquering the rebellious states that Rome will be able to establish tranquility and order within the Commonwealth.

It is apparent that the religion of this people was Christianity. They believed and considered themselves as subjects of the Supreme ruler, God. Their lives and behaviors had to be determined by the teachings of God. For instance, we note that the author highlights that the peace is significant according to the teachings of God, since the rulers who are supposed to bring peace within the country would be answerable to God after they return to where they came from (Cicero 13). Looking at the country’s political sphere, it is apparent that the country was politically unstable considering the fact that the country was facing serious political conflicts.

This document was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero during the period when Rome was facing both the social and political conflicts. He wrote the article in order to preach the peace within the country. In the article, the sense of the destiny and moral values, which are central to the country’s greatness have been highlighted.  The country was facing various political conflicts from the neighboring states which Rome had the capacity to conquer. However, as the article highlights, it is after Rome conquers these states that the dangerous war will stop, despite the fact that the specific time when this war would end was uncertain. However, it is after the dangerous war ends when order and tranquility will be established within the Commonwealth.

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the history behind the Commonwealth. The author has highlighted the conflicts that were being faced at the time.  Though, the author highlights that the specific time when the conflicts would end was not known, but he clearly highlights that the end of the war would help in establishing order and tranquility in the Commonwealth (Cicero 12). The other purpose of the document is to illustrate the significance of peace. Basically, the author highlights that having peace within the country is not only agreeable on earth, but assures that there is also eternity of happiness in the heaven. Cicero (13) highlights that even God; the Supreme Governor of the Universe requires that societies as well as men unite together. Thus, the article seeks to advocate for peace as this is not only agreeable on earth, but God in heaven live together peacefully being bound by peaceful laws.

According to the excerpt provided, we can conclude that the document is a work of fiction as it uses imaginary characters to illustrate the main theme of the story (Cicero 10). We can also conclude that Rome was being faced with conflicts at the times, as the authors highlights the significance of ending the war to attaining the peace and tranquility within the commonwealth (Cicero, 12). In addition, it can be concluded that the Romans were Christians, as they believed in the Supreme ruler, God. The author highlights that the relevance of the peace is not only agreeable in the earth, but God calls that human beings lead peaceful lives, since the rulers who are supposed to establish peace will be judged by God after they die (Cicero13-14).

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