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The Neolithic period

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The Neolithic period saw people settling in organizations and forming bonds, which led to appearing of the organized human societies. Written records were essential for creating civilization, because writing allowed traditions to be created and preserved. Eventually, these writings would develop into more complex religious and legal texts, which are crucial to our understanding of ancient civilizations. The Greeks are an example of a civilization that borrowed ideas from another civilization with significant benefits. When Alexander the Great launched the Crusades against the Moors in 334 B.C.E., Greeks became exposed to a variety of political, social, and religious ideas, which influenced Greek civilization and created a more sophisticated society. Jainism preaches non-violent behavior towards all things, regarding it as essential to spiritual liberation. Buddhism taught that enlightenment could be achieved through a renunciation of worldly desires and attention to the devotional practices. Hinduism taught that one should live a life of righteousness to be freed from the cycle of reincarnation. The unification of India by Chandragupta and Asoka led to the establishment of a complex administration influenced by religious values. Political disunity of India and contact with other cultures led to a diverse society with various religions and an advanced knowledge of science and technology.

In order to keep barbarians from breaking up the Roman Empire, I would recommend fortifying its military defenses, particularly  the northern ones. Buddhism traveled to East and Southeast Asia primarily through trade and Buddhist merchants. Both Buddhism and Christianity preach love and compassion, but Christianity clearly defines the existence of God, whereas Buddhism does not. Buddhism was declined in India due to the loss of its political and social base and decentralization.

Islam shaped Arab civilization and culture in many ways. One way is that it contributed significantly to Arabian literature. Religious values that encouraged spreading Islam facilitated the expansion of Arab culture through the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and the parts of Europe. The primary motivating factors that helped push the spread of Islam were the power of the Muslim empires and sophistication of their science, technology, and culture. An important similarity between the civilizations of Ghana and Mali and that of China and India is that they are all located on major trading routes. Thus, it facilitated the exchange of ideas and culture that were important in their origin and growth. Like the Roman Empire, Ghana and Mali declined due to the political instability and invaders.

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