Free «Myocardial Infarction» UK Essay Paper
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the medical term used to describe a heart attack. It is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a prolonged lack of oxygen (ischemia) to the heart leading to irreversible death (necrosis) of the heart muscles. It applies to this case scenario because Mr. E is presented with symptoms that suggest that he has suffered from a heart attack. These symptoms include the sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the left arm, shortness of breath, coldness, sweating, vomiting, paleness, and cyanosis. The essay examines a case of MI in a patient with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and explains the lifestyle factors that predisposed him to develop cardiovascular disease. It also explicates the role that diet plays in the treatment and management of cardiovascular disease and, finally, provides a sample menu the patient can use that will help him in the management of the heart condition.
Mr. E’s lifestyle has various factors that predisposed him to develop cardiovascular disease. His blood pressure of 140/85mmhg is above the normal range (less than 120/80mmhg), which predisposes him to develop hypertension and resultantly damage his heart arteries and cause heart conditions. He has a total cholesterol level of 225, which is rather high (normally less than 200mg/dl). It makes the arterial walls narrow and increases the risk of heart disease. Additionally, his work sometimes involves long and hectic days, and this means that he occasionally experiences work-related stresses. Stress is a known factor that predisposes one to heart disease, as it leads to high blood pressure. Mr. E is 55 years old. Men above 45 years are more likely to have heart conditions like heart attacks. He is overweight, so his doctor advised him to lose some weight (20lbs), as his BMI was 28.7. This weight increased his risk of developing heart conditions because of its association with high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. In addition, he lives a sedentary life and seldom exercises apart from occasionally playing golf with friends. Lack of exercise contributes to high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure, which may result in heart disease (University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC), 2016).
After the MI, a medical emergency, Mr. E needed a diet that would progress slowly from liquid to solid food for safety purposes. Such diet progression allows the patient to adjust to eating small amounts of food with different textures and consistencies so as to enable the nutritionists and doctors to learn, what can be digested by the patient safely and comfortably. It also helps to prevent side effects and complications that may arise following the medical interventions. He started with a clear liquid diet on the first day because this diet helped to promote bowel rest and reduce acute episodes of nausea and vomiting by helping to empty the upper gastrointestinal tract. This diet was later changed to full liquid diet on the second day in order to ease chewing, swallowing, and digestion of food. The progression to a low saturated fat, 1200 kcal soft diet on the fourth day was meant to help lower the reflux of acid from the stomach by reducing peristalsis and limiting the stimulation of the gastrointestinal (State of California Department of Developmental Services, 2010).
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The diet order by the MD of a 1600 kcal, low saturated fat, and low cholesterol diet was important because it would help to reduce both lipid and cholesterol levels in this patient and thus to assist in the treatment and management of his hypercholesterolemia and his heart disease. It was imperative for me as a nutritional educator to address his constipation and GERD issues that were missed by the MD, because some of the foods that help with his heart condition might trigger and worsen the GERD and constipation. Failure to address the GERD could result in him taking a lot of antacids, which might have a side effect of constipation and cause him to suffer from chronic constipation. Constipation would negatively interfere with the cardiologist’s meal plan as the patient would have difficulties eating and would have his heart condition resultantly worsen. It is thus important to find a meal plan that helps solve all his medical problems appropriately and adequately in order to promote quick recovery (Roth, 2010).
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When shopping for heart-healthy foods, Mrs. E should consider buying fresh fruits and vegetables for her husband, as they are loaded with vitamins, minerals, and fiber that lower cholesterol and improve heart health. She should also buy fat-free or low-fat dairy products, as well as purchase less saturated fats and search products with no trans fats, including olive oil and sunflower oil as they lower LDL cholesterol. She should also purchase more lean meat, limiting fatty meat. Besides, Mrs. E should purchase more oily fish as they contain omega-3 fatty acids, which help improve vessel elasticity and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. She should buy whole-grain, high-fiber bread, grains, and cereal, and limit baked foods like doughnuts and cakes. When preparing food for the husband, she should try to bake, roast, steam, or boil foods instead of frying them. Additionally, she should also prepare foods that contain little or no salt, as it causes fluid build-up in the vessels and may worsen the heart condition (American Heart Association, 2016).
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For the GERD, Mrs. E should avoid purchasing citrus fruits and juices, such as grapefruits and oranges. She should limit buying tea, coffee, chocolate, mint, and caffeinated soft drinks as these may trigger acid production and cause reflux. Further, she should avoid preparing fatty foods as they increase the risk of heartburn because of taking longer to digest and cause an overproduction of gastrin. She should prepare and serve her husband just enough for a healthful portion, since large portions can contribute to reflux. She should also avoid preparation of food with many tomatoes because they also trigger acid reflux and may worsen the heartburn.
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