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Personality according to Skinner it’s a certain behavior shaped by certain situations such as differences in the learning experiences. These behavioural patterns are either directly learnt trough positive and negative reinforcement. According to skinner, he argues that no one reacts the same with the other. The focus in this book “the revisited” is on many questions, which are meant to show how people differ on different perspectives. Many questions posted on personality about a person only try to show how that person behaves in a particular way. Personality can also be viewed as those consistent behavioral analysis’s which originate within an anindividual.Its is notable despite the many definitions of personality they all originate from within an individual although there are external sources that influence behavior too.
The following approaches are used in personality, psychoanalytic, humanistic, biological social learning, behavioral the cognitive approach and as well as biological social learning therapy theory. It’s therefore noted that all the personality theories can fit less than one of these approaches, and these personality they target the important aspects within the personality of the human beings. There are considerable differences flanked by the six approaches for example. In the humanistic approaches, if an individual has responsibility in self-acceptance creates a key difference in personality. The approaches in a biological context examines into the inherited aspects of an individual. In social or behaviour approaches if there is a consistent pattern in the way an individual behaves results into its expectations and conditioning. Finally, the theories under the cognitive approach examine the differences in the way people explain behavior differences. In the book “revisited” it’s evident that the application six approaches of personality brings out a more complex and an exact picture on the reasons that make people behave in different ways.
Culture is other crucial area in personality, psychologists’ states that culture has a key role in determining the meaning of personality. For example, people in the western developed countries have differs in the way they describe personality compared individuals from different cultures. Psychologists have also determined that people have differences in behavior, although their personalities are contained in an academic context. Collectivist and individualistic cultures are two types of culture forming a cross-cultural in which researchers have distinct ideas. Collective culture is concerned with the ideas of belonging to a larger group such as a tribe, family, or even a nation. In short, the main difference between these two cultures types lies under individualistic cooperation and competition, which is given priorities. The individualistic cultures include people from the developed countries and put more emphasis on the needs and accomplishment of people.
There are different meanings by the personality research done on behaviour in respect to culture. In the traditional setup individuals were able to make predictions about their future in terms of success in business and academic performance basing it in personality.
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However, this is not a universal idea, for example in some collective culture; this would mean accomplishments of a certain task. It can also refer to a cooperation that is in order to treat and identify a person’s disorder in which a psychological culture is a key issue to consider. In the book “revisited” in all aspects of culture even if a particular description is applicable there is a question other cases such as research. It’s therefore, to note that personality assessment is a crucial area while researching on personality.
Psychologists have provided theories that try to explain as well as putting emphases on the human behaviour. These theories also give personality power as the human behaviour determinant. These approaches to personality can be analysed in the chapter below.
Chapter 2 Summary
Personality differences can be classified through use of Personality approaches. These approaches can therefore, be analysed as follows: the environmental approaches versus the genetic, which tries to examine the question on whether an individual is born in possession of adult characteristics/personalities or not. It’s noted, the issue of inherited aspects in people are not addressed by most of biological trait theorist. The other area is in conscious against unconscious behavior determinants. This tries to answer the question up to what extent are people actually aware of the causs of behavior. There are arguments on this issue that no matter what we do it’s always under control of unconscious behavior.The criteria on how to measure personality is based on six approaches this is according to psychologists’ assessment.
Some people’s personality can change in respect to previous experiences in life. For example, a child’s life personality changed when left by parents, another child’s life changes to that of aggressiveness because of watching many violent movies. These are some of the reasons why a person is involved in a certain human behaviors, which are consistent causing this kind of personality.
According to Psychologist, personality is determined by a sophiscation degree where speculation over personality nature is addressed. The hypothesis on personality theories shows that it’s determined by various behavior characteristics. Personality theories differ depending on the phenomena being discussed in them. Most theories in personality focus mostly on the issues of people’s motivation. In respect to personality, Childs self-esteem intensity depends more on parent’s behavior.
The Chapter 3 Summary
Freud’s Personality theory
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The book discusses more on Freud’s theory of personality. According to this theory, personality can be divided into three disciplines: preconscious, unconscious, and conscious. Conscious refers to those ideas that an individual is aware of at a current moment, meaning that there are ideas that enter an individuals mind while others leave. In the case of unconscious ideas, they are those ideas comes in the mind of an individual and brings an effective charge. The retrieved ideas comprises of those ideas that an individual’s mind can be able to retrieve. Freud argues that it’s hard to bring thoughts which are unconscious into conscious ideas not unless under extreme situations. Freud’s theory changed the structural model (Burger, 2008). This model divides personality into ego, id, and super ego. In this sense, Freud perceives personality as something made up of parts that are not at peace with each other. Freud goes on and argues that at death, the personality id is usually present again, and that the id uses a fulfilment wish.
Some psychologist disagrees with all Freuds arguments as well as observations on personality. Apart from these critics by modern personality psychologists, Freud deserves some place as per psychology history is concerned. direction in personality theories was set by Freud’s views where by today the treatment of psycho disorders through discussion is widely used.Therfore, Freud can also be credited over the development of the first psychotherapy, which is the mother of the modern phsychotherapy.Finally Freud contributed so much in the populization of psychotherapy.
Chapter 4 Summary
Erickson’s Views on personality
The concept of ego, ego was perceived as umpire demands of super ego as well as impulses, this was according to Erickson who saw that personality was in possession of powerful and independent characteristics. The key function of ego according to him was based over the fact that an individual has a sense of exceptional awareness, stability feelings, and the urge of the imagined future. On the other hand, According to Freud’s personality comes to end when one reaches, the age of six. This results in a contradiction between Freud and Erickson’s view, which states that personality, continues all along a person’s lifetime. This therefore, brings out the image of personality in our heads right away from infancy to old age.
Erickson continues and states that the way people resolve problems depends on their personality. Such problems are current crisis and those that occurs later. The way we resolve individual crises and those belonging to other people is greatly influenced by a person’s personality. According to Erickson, basic trust and basic mistrust forms a kind of competition that occurs in the ages of 0-1 years or the infancy age. In any case, whether the infant develops basic mistrust or trust is never figured out as a nurture matter, but it’s viewed as a multi-faceted that is in possession of well-built group components.Marternal relationship is the basement of these facts. The sense of inner perceptions of reliability is reflected by mothers who Carries them bringing out a sense of personal meaning. According to Erickson, if there is success in all these facts it will create a sense of trust formation in an infant creating a basement in the baby and thus an its idenntity sense.
Chapter 5 Summary
Another approach to personality is the personality trait According to psychologist there two groups of people. In the first group psychologist at first noticed a wide range of behaviors that are presentable all along the range. Apart from this group, there is another group of people, which easily takes up behavior of another person somewhere in the range. Therefore, a trait in personality is a mode used in categorizing people on the basis or degree of characteristics they manifest. This trait approach is based on assumptions that personality traits are stabilized over time. Researchers also go ahead and find out that personality continues developing as an individual moves ahead towards adulthood. Personality trait approach is important because it helps develop a comparison between people. That is, it puts people in a personality scale that relates to others. It’s also important to note that personality in the trait approach does not talk much on the transformation of people from childhood to adulthood unlike other approaches.
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Personality is applicable in a job setup situation in that in case of an interview every applicant file contains some personality test scores. It’s always clear that every applicant possesses a different a score, which are different between applicants. Personality scores have been used by employers over sometime now in hiring and promotion decisions in organizations and any job setup.
Personality has been widely discussed in the book Bf skinner “Revisited” through use of theoretical views from different psychologists. Upon all these theories, there are different approaches to personality such as the trait theory. This trait perceived individuals as collected forms of broad dispositions this is based on how you one would describe the personality of an individual. The following are some of the traits one would go for such as kind, outgoing, and even tetchy therefore, a trait is a feature, which drives individual into certain behavior. According to the trait, approach personality is contained in differences that exist between individuals. Therefore, an arrangement of trait among individuals helps in creation of a personality, which has unique qualities among individuals.
Some traits dominates a person’s whole life these results in a Personality, which often becomes an identity to these people in such a way that their names are synonymous with such qualities. Traits that form the basis of personality form the major characteristics of an individual. The altitude of a person’s results when such person poses some personal trait in his or her behavior.
People level of sociability as well as outgoing depends on model of personality. The differences that show in people’s life where some are more social than others is based on directions they get from inner experiences. In addition, the way people focus attention to other people and the environment they are or brought in determines their personality models. Differences also persist between the level of moodiness and temperdness.There is traits that a person posses that determines the tendency of that individual in becoming emotional as well as upset. There are people who are highly tempered more than others are, all these results in differences in the behavior of these people or a difference in personality between people.
People are mostly described on their personality traits. The level of basic traits making up human personality remains a debate among many theorists. Although these theories are the lead-in steps in describing personality they posses, some weakness, and they are also prone to critics. The most significant one is that traits are often poor predictors of human behavior. This means that people cannot 100% depend on these traits in determine a person’s behavior in future. There are other factors, which in a person’s life can trigger and bring a change in behavior. For example, a person may develop a stealing habit and along his/her, life then at a certain time is locked in a cell. While in prison, the behavior of this person transforms to better.Therfore, I think that a good personality test provides a person with some information on all the things about the person, which the person might not be now or become later. That is an individual may score good in an assessment in a specific trait. Then later it’s found that that person does not behave that way in every situation. Finally, there is no any mannerism theory that attends to show as reasons why personality develops difference or why they occur in people.
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