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Marketing is a crucial and complex process which challenges many marketers irrespective of the areas of operations. In the attempt to assist marketers to develop an appropriate marketing approach, many scholars have come up with various concepts through their research and in response to other people’s research. The concept of consumer behavior is one of such key areas. Consumers are psychological in nature and hence they tend to respond on various marketing strategies from different perspectives. However, there are various aspects in consumer behavior which tend to be universal in nature (Wright 55). Consumers are unique due to the fact that their needs are different while factors such as believes and habits determines on which purchasing direction they select. Knowledge about consumer behavior is a key to a successful marketing process as a marketer knows what to offer, how and when appropriate. A part from personality there are other factors which are external in nature which in one way or the other influences consumer behavior. Such factors include cultural factors, religious belief and social factors. One of unique consumer behavior is that people with similar believes, age, sex, social status and educational level tend to have similar behaviors (Solomon 142). This is the reason why at a certain age, boys tend to buy similar toys and other play items. To enhance effective understanding of the concept, various literature materials can be used to gather the knowledge.
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East, Robert, Marc Vanhuele, and Malcolm Wright. Consumer Behaviour: Applications in Marketing. London: SAGE, 2012. Print.
East, Marc and Malcolm are great academics in the field of marketing. They have come up with this literature which addresses issues on consumer behavior. Contemporary issues are highly including the global marketing as it is today are addressed. Consumer differences based on personal and external factors are discussed fully. According to authors, purchasing decision making is not an entire personal affair. Age, gender, social status and cultural differences are key to such decisions. Readers particularly those marketing their products will have an insight on how to treat their customers and how they can ensure that their marketing mix fits to the target group of consumers. For example, it would be inappropriate to sell items prohibited by a certain social – cultural group to members of thatgroup. They may not accept that offer and the marketer may fail entirely.
Miranda Brookins, Types of Consumer Buying Behaviors & Product Decisions
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Miranda’s article: Demand Media Types of Consumer Buying Behaviors & Product Decisions, is simple but contains immensely relevant information about the consumer buying behavior decisions. According to him, a consumer irrespective of the value of the item he or she buys should first of all recognize that they have a need, search for relevant information and determines which options among the many in the market to choose. Miranda categorized purchasing into four including impulse buying, routing buying, limited decision and intensive decision. Impulse buying takes place when a consumer purchases an item they had not planned at all. Low priced items are involved in this case. Routine purchasing takes place on consumable such as milk, bread, and soap among others. No consultation is required in this case. The other category of purchase according to Miranda is the limited decision making which involves purchasing decisions which require limited purchasing decision. In addition, such a purchase may take place when there is a necessity. Extensive decision making involves purchasing decisions which required a lot of consultation before the final decision is reached. The item purchased in this case may be expensive or not for personal use. For example, while purchasing a family car an individual cannot wake up and purchase one; he or she must consult from members of the family. In addition, friends, relatives, and workmates among others should be consulted in such as case. According to Miranda, the type of purchasing behaviors is not personal to some extent despite the fact that the final decision lies on the hands of the consumer.
Pride, William M, and O C. Ferrell. Marketing. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
This book is one of the best of its kind when it comes to the study of consumer behavior. It offers the reader an opportunity to have an insight of how marketer should address issues pertaining to their customers. Pride and others have starts by providing an oversight of marketing forces and sociaal influence when it comes to consumer decision making. To them man is not an island; they live in their families, work places, social groups and other gatherings. In one way or the other individuals are influenced on how, where and when to purchasing a given item through social learning and influence. Issues on e- marketing are also addressed into details in this book. In a modern marketing environment, the use of online marketing services should not be ignored at all. Pride and others provide marketers with the knowledge on how to make credible and appropriate marketing decisions. To capture the attention of a consumers marketer are advised to make three key decisions effectively. These decisions include product decision, distribution decision, promotional decision and pricing decision. These decisions are essential in ensuring that consumers obtain the best product, at the right time and place, are informed about the product and that they are charged appropriate price. A marketer who makes effective decisions in this areas attracts attention of a consumer, satisfies their needs which eventually leads to consumers loyalty and retention.
Solomon, Michael R. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
In this book, the author discusses the various reasons as to why people purchase particular products. The author also discusses how consumption activities, products and services shape the social experience of an individual consumer. Some of the concepts discussed in this book include the consumer rules, motivation and values, learning and memory. Others include the ways in which peoples’ lifestyles, personalities, attitudes, and persuasive communication affects the buying behavior.
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Wright, Ray. Marketing: Origins, Concepts and Environment. London: International Thomson Business, 1999. Print.
This book covers both practical and theoretical approaches to the marketing discipline. The author takes the reader through the logical process step by step starting from the basic origins. Marketing concepts are also covered in this book as well as knowing and identifying customers in a business. Other issues discussed by the author include market segmentation, market research and marketing mix of a given market. To aid understanding, models are used by the author throughout this book.
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