Free «Organ Transplantation: Its Development, Process, Principles, and Ethical Issues» UK Essay Paper
Early Organ Transplantation
Successful organ transplantation dates back to the early 1950’s, when Dr. Murray made the first kidney transplantation in 1954. This practice was followed by another kidney transplant made in 1962 by the same practitioner, but this time from a deceased donor. Subsequent organ transplants were lung, pancreas, intestinal organs, a liver and a heart. The success of these operations paved ways for legislations that legalized the transplants. Most remarkably, the Uniform Donor Card was instituted in 1968 to allow every person above the majority age to donate organs after death (Kaserman & Barnett, 2002). These experiments also unmasked the phenomenon of organ rejection, and as a result, anti-rejection medication was invented in 1984, which provided transplantation practice with general acceptance and public financing. Thanks to these innovations, optimism and funding, preservation techniques were developed as well. These progressive advancements have made the process of organ transplantation as it is now. The pioneers of organ transplant, which is indispensable for us today, displayed high levels of intrinsic motivation, commitment, and perseverance.
Using Organs from Deceased Patients
Organ transplantation needs to be a transparent process and must follow all ethical considerations. To begin with, a donor must be confirmed “brain dead,” although few victims of cardiac death can donate organs as well. As Schlich (2010) explains, brain death “is declared by two physicians according to neurological criteria approved y the American Medical Association.” It involves numerous tests made in order to ascertain that a brain is irreversibly damaged, thus “dead.” As stated by Howard, Cornell & Cochran (2012), hospital can then refer a patient as a donor, whereby an organ procurement official explains the donation options to the next of kin of a donor. The evaluation of the donor’s health and medical history is the next step which helps to ascertain which organs can potentially be donated. The organs are then recovered through performing a dignified surgery and matched with recipients, which precedes the actual transplant.
Some ethical principles must be applied to the process of organ transplantation. Such policies include distributive justice and respect for a person. The obtained organs must be equitably allocated to patients. The waiting list must be formed taking into consideration the diagnoses of patients, regardless of their social position and prosperity. Ethical issues that must be taken into consideration regarding the process include a conflict of care about a dying donor and saving the life of a recipient. Other problems arise in cases when organs to be donated suffer criticism, especially reproductive organs and fetuses. Sometimes, dead donor’s rights can been violated, most evidently in cases when a donor have not consented to have his/her organ removed, and when there is haste in determining whether the donor is dead or not.
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Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO)
Organ procurement organizations date back to early 1980’s with legal funding enacted in 19984. OPO was established following the success of organ transplant, with a mandate to regulate the process through evaluation and procurement of organs from deceased donors (Kaserman & Barnett, 2002). It ensures that donors, recipients and medical facilities work in unison to guarantee the effectiveness of the process. State legislations and social norms govern OPO.
Impact of Counselors on Organ Transplant
Organ transplantation pertains greatly to health care personnel, but not entirely. Counselors also play a great role in ensuring the success of the practice. They have to instill the right perceptions and attitudes concerning organ transportation in a society. They must also inform people about the benefits of organ transplant. As far as organs from deceased donors are concerned, counselors must assist the public in understanding that brain death is complete and irreversible death. They have to offer emotional support to the donors, recipients and their families (Petechuk, 2006).
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Mr. Krampitz's Case
Mr. Krampitz used his financial aptitude to obtain a kidney for transplantation, rather than wait for his turn in accordance to the queue prescribed by the recipients list. The principle of distributive justice says that there must be equity in access to the donated organs. The principle of allocation of scarce resources stipulates fair distribution as well, regardless of social strata and prosperity (Price, 2000). Such an act as Mr. Krampitz did violates the two principles denying the rights of those recipients in the waiting list who cannot raise money.
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