Free «Prescription Drug Use» UK Essay Paper
In this case, the disorder is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The two current approaches that can be used to understand ADHD are behavioral and cognitive theories.
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Under the behavioral model, such individuals tend to have distinguishing features of behaviors as compared to other people since the condition causes them to be distractible and inattentive. Behavioral model has been associated with the observable behaviors in an individual as opposed to the inside events such as thinking and emotions (Alliades, 2010). That way, research has proved that behavior can be measured using both objective and scientific ways. The main assumptions of the behavioral model include:
- Learning engages behavioral change.
- Learning is as a result of environmental activities.
- Principles of learning are equally applicable to diverse behaviors.
- Organisms are usually brought to the world as blank slates.
- Objectivity can be used to study learning processes when the aim of the study is based on both stimuli and responses (Huang-Pollock, Karalunas, Tam, & Moore, 2012).
ADHD has closely been associated with the behavioral model since all the clinical criteria are mostly behavioral in nature. In this case, inattentiveness, over reactivity as well as impulsiveness are the three main symptoms. Treatment of ADHD has also been linked with the behavioral model in the sense that the medications provided can indeed change a victim’s behavior hence changing other issues that surrounded that person’s character.
The controversies surrounding the behavioral model of treating ADHD is that critics argue that taking the drugs is assoiated with the need to fit in the competitive environment. People use them in order to change behaviors in those affected with a primary aim of improving performance rather than healing the victims.
There has also been the problem of parents taking the ADHD drugs prescribed for their children. This phenomenon is referred to as diversion. It is a situation where a medication given and prescribed for a person is taken by a different person. That will place great pressure on the child in being diligent and making sure that the drug is effectively used (Stark, et al., 2011).
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According to the cognitive model, the fundamental problem in people with ADHD has not been paid much attention as the one on impulsiveness. That way, people that suffer from ADHD tend to be more impulsive, less controlled and reflective that other individuals. The cognitive model looks deep into the unobservable changes in one’s mental knowledge (Iseman & Naglieri, 2011). Some of the assumptions of the cognitive theory include:
- Some learning processes can be unique in humans.
- Knowledge is usually organized.
- Individuals are involved in learning.
- Learning is the process of associating information to previously acquired information (Huang-Pollock, Karalunas, Tam, & Moore, 2012).
Looking at the cognitive model, the ADHD dysfunctions are usually associated with complex changes in the emotional and brain formation of patients. Teachers, parents as well as students perceive that such dysfunctions cause complex changes in the brain formation of the patient, which leads to restoration of one’s wellbeing (Alliades, 2010).
The controversy surrounding the cognitive view of ADHD is that there is no evidence that the medications given in treatment of the disorder tend to improve the long-term learning as well as retention of information. However, it has been mentioned that they improve the grades in the short-run (Stark, et al., 2011).
Research on ADHD
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Research has been done in order to determine the long-term effects of the treatment of ADHD. The research was done by George Ricaurte along with his colleagues. It proved that drugs to treat ADHD can produce long-term impacts and prolong the condition. The monkeys that were experimented showed a reduction in their vital components of impulse control in the long-run (Iseman & Naglieri, 2011). Atten Disord was keen in providing the facts behind the behavioral model by explaining that the environment influenced by culture can have general influences on one’s ADHD conditions (Killeen, Russell & Sergeant, 2013). The scholars have focused on the future in order to determine the influence of brain differences in regard to the question if ADHD is a disorder or a general personality variation.
Key Points from Presentation
- The two main models used for this presentation are behavioral and cognitive models.
- Description of behavioral model
- Assumptions of behavioral model
- Controversies of behavioral model in relation to ADHD
- Description of cognitive model
- Assumptions of cognitive model
- Controversies of cognitive model in relation to ADHD.
- Previous researches by scholars and future considerations.
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