Free «Motivational Interviewing» UK Essay Paper
Table of Contents
Motivational interviewing model is aimed to help people to cope with any type of behavioral disorders. The founders of this approach have realized that many attempts to influence the patients have been limited to "boost" in which the clinician has lectured, explained, criticized, inspired or threatened dire consequences to the patient. However, the changes have not occurred. Thus, the forced approach is not very effective. Supporters of the motivational interviewing, on the contrary, take into account the psychological theory of reactance which states that it is difficult to change an individual because people are motivated to maintain a sense of independence and resist coercion by others. Reactance creates its own logic in patients, who start justifying their behavior denying the existence of the problem.
The recent researches have demonstrated that the best way to influence the conduct of the patients is the one based on their own motivation to change. This is achieved through a stylistic interview that demonstrates sympathy, curiosity, self-acceptance and studies the ambivalence in behavior; the one where the customer often resists, rather than fights his resistance (Miller, 2013). As a result, the motivational interviewing is an up-to-date, soft and effective method to cope with many disorders and addictions.
The Guide to Motivational Interviewing
The MI does not offer any new tricks or unique techniques of conversation with the client. Instead, it actively uses all the known methods and approaches to effectively influence an individual and find the best solutions. In order to contribute to customer changes with the help of the MI method, one can use the following recommendations on the organization of the conversation with the patient:
- demonstrate empathy;
- build and maintain good contact with the client;
- do your best to hear the patient and show him that a specialist tries to understand his behavior, motives and personal situation;
- pay attention to what the client to be able to understand the issue;
- propose the alternative solutions to problems and discuss them with the client;
- provide the person with the right to choose the further actions based on experience and careful analysis (Miller, 2013).
To fulfill all the mentioned above, one can use the questions to show that he is hearing what is being said, retell it in a more understandable form, rearrange the information in order to show it from another angle, sum it up, etc. The basic techniques of the MI are open questions, recapitulation, compilation, and support (Miller, 2013). Prior to taking some steps, it is very important to make a plan according to patience’s needs. Usually, the first results will come up in 5-6 sessions of the MI (Rollnick, Miller, & Butler, 2008).
The Power of the Motivational Interviewing: Examples
Usually, the MI is organized in a form of a get-together, or, in other words, a seminar, or a workshop. Its purposes are goal-setting, planning, building of the cooperation, development of rules of communication, etc. Participants present their situation and analyze the problems in groups. In each grou, there are experts and contact persons who contribute to an active exchange of experiences and discussion of real and urgent issues of a particular category of people as well as deep analysis of the distinguished problems. Each group could express their attitude to supplement, comment on and evaluate the work of the other ones. Such an interaction of participants helps to create a favorable working environment for the analysis and reflection of the issues and effective conditions to assist the patients.
To exemplify the work of the MI, the case study related to drug addicts, in particular those abusing cannabis, will be presented. As it is known, cannabis is an illegal drug that is most commonly consumed in the United Kingdom with many addicts categorized depending on the symptoms observed (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). Psychological treatments for the condition under consideration have been developed on the basis of the methods used in the treatment of the addiction to alcohol and other psychoactive substances. It is worth mentioning that they frequently employ the components of motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioral therapy and relapse prevention (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). These approaches allow strengthening of the motivation of clients to change, teaching them not only to overcome the difficulties such as depressive mood, but also to predict traction and resist it, and to prevent relapse. The main goal of motivational interviewing here is to enhance the person’s internal mechanisms to encourage a change. Miller and Rollnick have described four basic principles of the method that are its basis and improve motivation. (Miller & Rollnick, 2002).
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The Case Study
Jack, a 35-year-old unemployed man, was sent to his general practitioner to get a treatment for cannabis abuse. He said that he smoked 10 cannabis cigarettes daily, usually alone. In addition, he complained of depressive mood. Jack intended to stop smoking this drug completely; thus, he received an offer to get five to seven MI sessions (Wright, Thase, Beck, & Ludgate, 1993).
Throughout the course of treatment, the patient took part in the motivational interviewing without judgment and with empathy manifestation to help him formulate his reasons to stop using cannabis. Jack was aware that he smoked cannabis in order to "calm down" although he realized that it prevented him from living as he would like. In particular, he sought to enroll on training courses at the university and often chat with friends; however, he was not successful due to his addiction. Jack said that it was important for him to quit the habit, but his confidence that he could do it was not great. Nevertheless, the therapist confirmed his self-efficacy having found out that in the past the man had shown his strong side since Jack had succeeded in stopping cigarette smoking. This fact helped him to improve his self-belief.
Jack phased out the use of cannabis following such stages as delay, distraction, and the elimination of internal stress (Wright et al., 1993). He put off the first intake of the drug a day for as long as possible and understood that physical exercise was a pleasant means of distraction. In addition, Jack repeatedly told himself that he would not die if he did not smoke and found oother ways to "de-stress "and, therefore, relax. He also kept a record of his thoughts and events that happened. These included the details of the situations in which he used cannabis and negative thoughts at those moments so that they could be questioned and replaced with the positive ones.
After six sessions, Jack successfully managed to stop smoking cannabis. To reduce the risk of relapse, he was informed about the high risks of the cannabis intake, as well as about the classes and thoughts that would help him cope with the thrust he would sometimes feel. Jack not only stopped using cannabis, but also enrolled on the courses of information technology in a local college and began to swim regularly. He said that he felt quite happy and more optimistic about his future. Moreover, the man was sure he would be able to completely abstain from the cannabis use.
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As it has already been mentioned, open questions, support, reflective listening and summing up are the main techniques of the MI (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). They are aimed at improving the customer's motivation to continue treatment and to change the nature of the use of psychoactive substances. To reach the patient, it is necessary to discuss the beliefs that support the cycle of addiction (Wright et al., 1993). Some of the convictions that do not allow the individual to quit the habit are the opinion that the psychoactive substance is necessary to support the state of psychological balance, improve bad mood and lead to the enjoyment. These beliefs can be activated in high-risk situations including the states of depressive mood or conflicts with people, or being in the places that are associated with the use of the drug. Furthermore, some convictions are based on the idea that one needs cannabis to feel normal. Confidence in the permissibility may be used in the future to justify the acquisition and use of the substance. In this case, the ambivalence may be due to the conflict between sureness in the permissibility and thoughts of abstinence from the cannabis use. Unfortunately, in the future, the belief that the drug intake is not an issue can become a decisive factor in favor of its consumption and lead to the development of the susceptibility to the formation of problematic substance use. However, about one-fifth of the people who undergo such a treatment achieve complete abstinence (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985).
To sum up, the effectiveness such a psychological method as the motivational interviewing has been proved with the help of several studies which involved both adults and minors. Apparently, it is efficient in the reduction of drugs consumption. However, many of the researches have been conducted in Australia and the US, so more of them are needed in the United Kingdom. Pharmacological treatment for cannabis abuse is not well understood. At present, the task is to transform the data of such tests into the information that can be used in the interventions which will be available in routine clinical practice. Overall, when it comes to making a choice between pharmacological treatment and motivational interviewing, no doubts, the answer should be the latter one. Motivational interviewing is a life-saver, time-saver, and healing tool that helps to reveal new life for many people all over the world.
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