Free «Homo Florensiensis» UK Essay Paper
Homo floresiensis is one type of species of man that is claimed to be dwarf in nature, which was discovered in 2003. This species is reported to be found in a cave that was called Liang bua, situated on an island in Indonesia called the Flores. This species was found to contain a brain that is specifically small. The species is also claimed that its height is one meter. The brain is estimated to be 417 cc. This type of brain is essentially smaller as compared to a human being’s one, and the researchers claim that such brain is associated with chimps. The skull as it was found out contains teeth like those of human. This species also was found to be having a forehead that is receding and contains no chin. The anthropologists claim that the species was found 38,000 years ago. The anthropologists also claim that this species may have existed on the island 95,000 years ago. The species is revolving around a series of statement as to whether it is part of the human tree or it was some diseased person’s remains (Morwood & Van 2007).
This species is found to have crafted tools made from stone and also used fire to hunt. The type of animal hunted included komodo dragons, giant rats and pygmy elephants that were claimed to live in Flores. The people behind the discovery claim that this species can only come out from Homo erectus. The fossil from this species that is claimed to be complete is referred to as LB1 and is said to contain a skull that is almost complete, a part of the skeleton that may contain some bones from the legs, hands, pelvis and feet. This type called LB1 is assumed to be a female, who was about 30 years old as the species had the pelvis. The anthropologists claim that other species found may contain the similar characteristics. The anthropologists, however, assert that the species of a man could have been much bigger than the one of this female. The bones from these species are yet to be turned to fossil as this is dependent on their young age and the conditions of the place, which are said to be damp.
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The tools that were used by this species are claimed to have been crafted by the Homo sapiens. The reason for this is that the small brain that the species contained could not be able to think of such tools. There is no full report and evidence that these materials and tools were from the sapiens, but since these species were near tools this could be a proof. The fact that that fossil was under their reach could also be an argument that they crafted the tools. The skull of this species is said to have a closer match with that of the Homo sapiens. The size as noted by many anthropologists is the same to that of a small child. These tools, however, were simple, but presumably the oldest of all. Fire as claimed by other anthropologists was a tool used by the hobbits, although it is not yet clear as no signs of fire were seen apart from some bones, which were burnt (Zeitoun 2009).
The size of this species has been a speculation that has made anthropologists dig deep to find the real truth. The study conducted by the anthropologists’ claim that these species may not have been born from the erectus as this implies that there was a huge drop in size. The anthropologists claim that this species is attached to a species that is called Dmanisi hominid. This species is found and related to Georgia. The anthropologists claim that this hominid species contains about 600-700 cc.
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There has been news surrounding this species as, around 1998, an anthropologist called Mike Morwood stated that he had found another stone tool at a diverse location, but in Flores. This tool as claimed by the anthropologist dates back 840,000 years. This evidence distances the claim that the species originated and evolved from the erectus. This, however, brings the conclusion that the species came from hominid species. The species of erectus is said to be in existence 1.5 million years ago. It is assumed that this species have occupied Asia at that time, until 50,000 years ago. Part of the bones from the species has a close resemblance to the erectus, apart from the small size of the body and the amazingly small brain, which rules out this fact. This aspect made anthropologists dig deep to claim that this species is part of a new species that is linked with the erectus. This theory claims that the species could have reduced its size, when its ancestors were crossing the treacherous water on their way to Flores.
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The ability to exclusively get the full report about this species is revolved around some catastrophe. The atmosphere of Indonesia is a substantial obstacle in terms of obtaining the full report of the species. Anthropologists wish to use the DNA of the species called mitochondrial DNA that can be obtained from the bones of the species. However, the bones are not fossil and can be of a paramount significance in obtaining of the DNA. However, the temperature of this place may limit this being possible as the temperature is high and can affect the intention of anthropologists.
This aspect of the evolution is seen to be continuing. The discovery of this species as stated by anthropologists could mean that researchers should expect more. The anthropologists claim that the process of evolution may continue, due to this recent discovery. This explains that humans should expect more cases of evolution. Many of the anthropologists have concreted their theories that the hobbit is a part of the Homo floresiensis. The anthropologists continue to state that this species is flexible and varied to a considerable degree.
There are rumors from an anatomist called Macienj Henneberg that there is a close relation of this species with Crete, where the microcephalic specimen was found. This specimen as claimed by doctors and anatomists is a disease, associated with having an effect on brains. According to the studies, this specimen leads to small brains. However, this notion was rejected by Peter Brown, who claims that the said specimen is not linked in any way to the species. Brown has supported his claim and said that there are some fossils, which have not yet been known by others; thus, he claims that the species is different and not attached to the modern human. The assumptions of Henneberg may differ from others, because he claims that bones associated with the florensiensis are about 1.5 meters of height, some half a meter taller than the species. Brown asserts that these species may have been existent together with other different species of the mankind. Brown continues by emphasizing that they had behaviors and characteristics, like those of humans, but their appearance is much different from those of humans. Brown claims that the fire they used was apparently used for cooking, but claims that elephants they hunted for required specific skills as it was considerably difficult to kill these animals, taking into account the size of the hobbits. In addition, the hobbits became extinct particularly around the time that these animals did (Falk 2011).
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Jacob Teuku, one of the best and most appreciated anthropologists in Indonesia, suggests that these species are not that old as other anthropologists claim. The anthropologist assumes that the species is only 1,800 years old. The anthropologist claims that this species is part of the modern human and excludes other suggestions developed by other anthropologists. The anthropologist goes further in claiming that the species is a part of Australomelanesid race. This race as explained by the anthropologist is related to the modern human. This race is said to be having a skull that resembles the original Homo erectus or the Homo habilis.
Falk, an anthropologist, also came up with his suggestions surrounding the species in May, 2005. Falk did a comparative analysis of the species of floresiensis and those from pygmy, as well as the microcephalic specimen, apes and erectus. The report claimed that the species is part of the erectus and not from the microcephalic specimen. This report, however, did not auger well with other anthropologists, like Henneberg, who disapproved the analysis.
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The anthropologists behind the discovery of the hobbit in October, 2005 claimed to have identified some other bones linking them to the species. They asserted that part of the bones includes the jaw, and some other bones were from the first hobbit. The anthropologists, however, assumed that the hobbit is a member of the species, and that they are the same.
The aspect of dwarf is one that was brought by many researches and theory. Part of the theory surrounding this includes that this nature is associated with those, who have occupied parts of Asia. This aspect is also documented to be associated with some other animals in the same region, including some mammals, deers and primates. This reduction is branded as the island dwarfing. This dwarfing is associated with the reduction of various resources that are found in the environment. This theory has come under a heavy pressure of rejection, based on the size of the brain and the body. The size of the brain, which relates to about 417 cc, has ruled this theory out as the size of this brain is about one third of the original size of a normal brain. This is explained by the rate, at which the brain of dwarfs is much greater as compared to the normal dwarfing of the body (Sarmiento et al. 2007).
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There is a major problem with finding the real ancestors of this species, since it is a complex and complicated process. The relation between the homo erectus and the hobbit seems to be a bit controversial. There lacks some fossils, which will truly identify that the hobbit evolved from the erectus. These fossils have not been identified on the island or Asia. The fossil of the hominin, which is linked, has been found in Africa. The other aspect is that the records of the fossil related to this species are poor, and its documentation is not complete.
There is another theory that has emerged from this controversial species. This theory claims that humans might be suffering from a condition called pathological. This theory states that modern humans suffered from a condition called microcephaly, a disease, where the neurocranium is smaller as compared to a healthy and normal person. The theory asserts that this is a problem, where the brain experiences the underdevelopment. This condition as branded by various anatomists is referred to as the primary microcephaly. This theory has so far been unable to clearly outline the disorder that can result in such a high degradation in the size of the brain.
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The idea of microcephaly has led to another pathology, which is viewed differently by others. This pathology claims that the condition can be experienced during pre-natal and post-natal stages of the development. This is possible if a creature lacks iodine. This iodine may be insufficient in terms of a specific diet needed during the growth. Iodine is responsible for the development of the nervous system. Iodine is also essential for the production of essential hormones from the gland called thyroid needed for development. One of the most associated symptoms of the disease is mental retardation and the amazingly short stature, which is affected by the delay of maturity of the skeleton.
The notions that the hobbits might have mingled with humans are impossible. This is because humans reached Flores 11,000 years ago. The remains that were obtained of the hobbits were collected 13,000 years ago, several years before humans entered Flores. The animals that were found to crisscross may have had some sought of interaction with humans, but this is branded as a rumor. Richard Roberts, an anthropologist, claims and explains that this would have been possible around 40,000 years ago as there were people, who lived in Australia. This may clearly outline that there could be mingling of the two species (Palmer 2010).
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This species is a remarkable one as evidently stated by various researchers, who claim that this species is one of those that have stayed for a long period, when compared to the Neanderthals. This is because the Neanderthals became extinct 29,000 years ago in comparison to the hobbit that became extinct 12,000 years ago. This extinction is associated with a volcanic eruption in Flores. This extinction also eliminated other types of animals, which existed at that time.
The hobbits have for many instances been recorded to be vegetarians, but this has been argued. The current research identified that they did haunt for meat from small animals like rodents. The hobbits also were identified to break bones and looked for marrow found in these bones. Large stone, which were present at the cave, called manuports, were used as the tool for breaking the bones.
The mystery about the discovery of this species continues and is not about to end. Different anthropologists have come up with various theories to explain this species. Many of these theories are differing, leading to more confusion among people. The aim is to find out whether this species belongs to the sapiens. The high temperature of Flores may be a hindrance to this aspect, but the anatomists hope for the best. The theory as to whether this species existed along with humans is yet to be identified. The conflicting theories from various anthropologists need to be clearly researched in order to clearly identify the fate of this species. The short nature of these species brings a controversy as the comparison between humans, who existed at that time, is conflicting. Various anthropologists are working on this matter with the purpose of outlining the state of this species. There are various conditions and diseases, such as cretinism, that have been stated to cause this state, but their symptoms are not yet vivid in the skeleton of the hobbit.
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