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Currently, there are more than seven billion people living on the planet Earth. On the one hand, they talk that it is time to colonize Mars or another planet, which is more or less suitable for human life. This intention is related to the words of the famous writer Kurt Vonnegut "Humanity - you are so overcrowded!”
On the other hand, science and medicine are actively working on cloning human beings in order to help those individuals that suffer from infertility, use this procedure for the "resurrection" of famous personalities, and bringing real benefits to society in connection with other less reasonable needs.
As one can see, a mixed picture emerges. According to one source, humanity is overpopulated, while other states that population experiences failure and needs to be cloned. Do we need Mars or still have or want to see twins around the world? Why do people need clones, if there are not enough natural resources for usually born human beings? Such aspect will be discussed in the paper.
Cloning itself means a faithful reproduction of the object. Accordingly, human cloning is the creation of embryo that subsequently develops into a human having the genotype of the cloned individual. The notion of cloning came from microbiology and was used extensively in genetics. The issue of creating the same people quickly attracted not only the minds of scientists, but also creative members of elite, i.e. writers, filmmakers, and screenwriters. Today there are a lot of books and movies that tell people what awaits humanity if people take cloning as a good scientific advancement (Kwon n.pag)
One can ask a question why cloning is a significant issue today and how it can be helpful. First, cloning of people, their organs or tissues makes a revolutionary breakthrough in transplantation and trauma treatment. For example, if one has liver failure, due to his/her healthy clone, one can easily get a new lier. Another example may be a case, when a person gets a heavy burn and some parts of skin cannot be regenerated. In such a case, they can easily be replaced with artificial skin and a person will live more peacefully and happily. In this regard, cloning of parts of the body is quite necessary and appropriate. Such procedure allows a person to live for a long time with the same mind and spirit, but with just laboratory-made body parts.
The effects of cloning the whole human or parts of the body are rather optimistic. In fact, cloning will increase the life expectancy of individuals and improve the gene pool, as well as resolve the issue of children birth of among infertile parents. However, why the majority of people, churches and governments of many countries along with the law makers are rebelling against human cloning?
The first reason is the high percentage of failed cloning "copies," namely, the disabled people. According to Steven Vere, human cloning is aimed to create a copy of an individual; however, there is no prove that the DNA will not be modified. Any modification of the DNA can easily lead to creating a monster, not a human (n.pag). In such a case, a socio-ethical aspect is taken into consideration. According to authorities and opponents, the problem also includes such unanswerable questions of cloning as parenthood, social confusion with the rights, the possibility of marriage, and sometimes other unintended ordinary emerging challenges associated with human cloning (Vere n.pag).
The second objection to cloning is inability to fully replicate human consciousness. On the one hand, one can use it as a proof that the clones are not completely identical, whereas repetition is possible only in the genetic plan and appearance. Reproduction of the same people with the same personalities, abilities, and habits is absolutely impossible. According to Foht “The fact that cloned embryos have largely the same DNA as an existing human being should not disstract us from the fact that they are new and unique human organisms, by virtue of their organic and developmental unity as living beings” (“Just What Is Wrong with Human Cloning?”) It means that the concept of cloning is impaired. Accordingly, the question arises - why, in this case, do we need the clone of Einstein or Leonardo da Vinci if it is not possible to achieve? For what do we need the same people, if internally they all are different?
World religions almost unanimously state that cloning goes beyond permitted measures determined by the Lord as it is directed to the creation of artificial life. Rawat states that “All religious institutions hold up the belief that human cloning means mocking the role of God” (“10 Reasons Why Human Cloning is Bad for Society at Large” n.pag). Maneuvers with altering the nature of God, according to religious people, cannot be accepted. It means nothing, but breaking the rule of nature and trying to perform actions that belong to God obviously will not end well.
Besides, cloning can lead to endless reproduction of copies of people for commercial purposes. Let us just imagine a situation when a wealthy man decides to marry Pamela Anderson, an idol of his adolescence. In ordinary reality, today it is almost impossible. However, if human cloning would be allowed, then everything can be changed dramatically. Theoretically, in order to marry Anderson, the man will need only to put some Pamela’s somatic cells into an egg of a surrogate mother and wait for nine months when the world will get a blond girl clone. Then, he will wait for another 18 years, until she grows up; consequently, if a man (or "customer") is still alive, he can become her husband, lover, or just a friend, if before that he will not perform a role of her father. Such aspect is only a usual example of how people can become cloned and turned into a commodity. Cloning embryos breaks the principles of international laws that protect human dignity.
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