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Recidivism is a frequency of crimes that is connected with the conviction for the previous offenses. The article “Women Coming Home: Long%u2010Term Patterns of Recidivism” by Beth M. Huebner, Christina DeJong & Jennifer Cobbina represents the impact of social relationships, imprisonment, and common situations on the occurrence and frequency of recidivism. The authors used a research of women, who were freed from prison, and discovered that those women, who had a drug addiction, frequent condemnations or low level of education, are more inclined to recidivate during the short time period (the eight year observation). However, the journalists took into consideration the racial differences, which had an influence on the level of education, and possible drug abuse. The impact of the surrounding environment also has a relation with recidivism. The aim of the research is to emphasize the importance of the understanding of theoretical aspects of recidivism within genders and to investigate the role of policy direction on women’s paroles.
The number of female criminals is higher than the number of male ones. According to Huebner, DeJong & Cobbina (2009), “The imprisonment rate for female inmates has exceeded that of males during the last five years, with a disproportionate amount of growth occurring among non%u2010white women” (p. 227). Thus, the journalists studied an interrelation between the race and susceptibility to drug use. It was noted that physical and sexual violence, drug and alcohol abuse had an influence on the experience of prisoners, and ould lead to recidivism. The research studied the risk factors that affect the number of criminality and its correlation with recidivism samples of white females and the ones of other nationalities and races. Hence, the authors evaluate continuous probability of recidivism among various modern women freed from prison. The other point is the influence of experience of female criminals on their recidivism. In addition to the explored issues, the authors of the article summarized the official data to study out harbingers of the fact and duration of recidivism.
The purpose of the research was to expand the study of recidivism, considering gender and race risks of being imprisoned again. In general, the authors found out that female paroles dealt with significant problems, in which almost half of the women were reconvicted. As it was assumed, women paroles were drug dependent, which had led to re-imprisonment.
Elder Sexual Abuse Comparisons to Elder Physical Abuse
The main theme of the research is sexual assault incidents including the younger victims. The purpose of the study is to explore the dynamics of elder sexual violence and the method of the justice system that solves these issues. The other aim of the research is to distinguish the elder sexual abuse from the elder physical abuse. The authors studied that in general, the series of elder sexual abuse accidents are committed, but these cases are considered differently than elder physical incidents. The authors of the study emphasized the importance of understanding the discusseed problems, taking into consideration the position of sexual assault victims and the impact of different aspects on their mental state. The research shows that that elder sexual abuse is an important item, which causes huge harm to its victims. According to Payne (2010), “Alternatively, if the case is processed as an “elder abuse” case, but not a sexual abuse case, the specific needs of the sexual assault victim may be ignored” (p.209). This fact noted that one of the spouse’s abuse could be responded as “elder abuse”, when it is the real elder sexual abuse, where there are the victim and the offender present.
The study found out the following: the offenders were males in nearly 80% of the cases and females in just over 20% of the cases. In cases where the gender of the victim was reported in the case description, two%u2010thirds of the victims were females and one%u2010third were males. (p. 219)
Thus, it could be concluded that gender really has an influence on committing a crime. The elder sexual abuse issues included different stages of the crime: the cases of the sexual contact or the inappropriate touching without sexual contact. However, a great attention was given to the offender’s judgment (placing on probation). Hence, the findings of the research were logical, and they summarized that elder sexual abuse incidents involve women victims and men offenders. Nevertheless, elder sexual abuse issues were different from elder physical abuse issues. The criminal justice system sees these both crimes in a different way.
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