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Canadian Culture

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The recognition of transplanted ethnic art forms as part of Canadian culture has been a slow but evolving process in the Ukrainian culture (Magocsi & Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1999). Another similarity is that the Ukrainian dance in Canada is beginning to function more as a fine art form than a national folk heritage. This implies that Canadian cultural dance borrows some attributes from the Ukrainian cultural dance. The influence results from the most enduring contributions of ethnic folk art to Canadian culture are the artifacts of the first immigrants who brought color and design in the daily lives of the Ukrainians.

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The culture of the Canadian Mosaic is very diverse. This is because the Canadians were taught from an early age that no person is better than others hence in this case equality pervades much of the Canadian perspective on social status (Gannon & Pillai, 2009). In comparison to the Canadian culture, Ukrainians culture has a rich ethnological life which is based on their manners and customs, profound religious feeling and pronounced individualism in family life (Hartmann & Rudnitsky, 2009). Unlike Ukraine Canada receives most of its legal immigrants from three main sources which include people with skills, those with relatives in Canada, and refugees from around the world. Hartmann & Rudnitsky (2009) continue to say that these immigrants help to make up the famed Canadian mosaic.

There are laws in place of that protect people from racism and overt acts of discrimination and gay bashing. According to the article “Third report of Ukraine” to ECRI, in the constitution of Ukraine “Article 161 of the criminal code provides for ciminal responsibility for deliberate actions whose aim is inciting ethnic, racial or religious animosity as well as hatred” (p. 10). The article “Third report of Ukraine” to ECRI further indicates that “Article 161the protection afforded to a person’s dignity and feelings has not been extended to include the grounds of race, color, ethnic origin and language”. The article further indicates that “Ukrainian authorities amended Article 161 of the criminal code to facilitate the prosecution of anyone who incites racial hatred” (p. 10).

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According to the article published by CBC News “In depth: Hate crimes” the criminal code of Canada says that hate is committed to intimidate, harm or terrify a group of people or a person. These laws are covered under Sections 318 and 319 of the criminal code of Canada. The article continues to say that Under “Section 318, it is a criminal act to "advocate or promote genocide" - to call for, support, encourage or argue for the killing of members of a group based on color, race, religion or ethnic origin” while “Section 319 deals with publicly stirring up or inciting hatred against an identifiable group based on color, race, religion, ethnic origin or sexual orientation. It is illegal to communicate hatred in a public place by telephone, broadcast or through other audio or visual means”.

The Canadian Law (subparagraph 718.2(a)(i), to be specific) according to the article published by CBC News “In depth: Hate crimes” “ it encourages judges to consider in sentencing whether the crime was motivated by hate of: the victim's race, national or ethnic origin, language, color, religion, sex, age, menntal or physical disability, sexual orientation or any other similar factor”. This means that both Ukraine and Canada have put discourage acts related to racism and discrimination.

The international law also recognizes the need to deal with the acts related to racial discrimination. Nakata (2001) stated that the Charter of the United Nations is the constitution of the international community. As a result this Charter sets out common values, goals and principles that must be respected by all organs of the United Nations. Nakata (2001) thus says that Article 1(3) of the Charter states that one United Nations Should  strive to “ achieve international cooperation in solving problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction such as to race, sex language or religion” (p.111).

Nakata (2001)  says that states should in accordance with the international law take concerted positive steps to ensure respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people on the basis of equality and non discrimination. They should also recognize the value and diversity of their distinct identities, cultures and social organization Nakata (2001). We need hate crime laws in Canada because based on the fact that the state has a lot of immigrants there is a need to protect the minority groups in that country (Nakata, 2001). The need arises from acts related to racial discrimination which has declined in the recent past. The need for Hate Crime laws in Canada helps the state to reduce willful promotion of hatred and incitements against certain groups of people (Nakata, 2001)

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