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Rwanda is African country, located in East Africa, bordering DR Congo, Burundi, Uganda, and Tanzania. Rwanda’s capital city is Kigali, and Paul Kagame is the president. The population of Rwanda is about 12,012,589 million people. Rwanda has three official languages used for communication purposes, including Kinyarwanda, French and English. Similarly, three major ethnic groups exist in this country, namely Hutu, the Tutsi and the Twa (King, 2007). Rwandan Franc is official currency of Rwanda. The exchange rate between Rwandan Franc and US dollar for the past 10 months has been fluctuating between 683.6296 RW and 665.568 RWF over the same period. However, over the past 10 years, the exchange rate has experienced a significant rise and stability. In 2009, the literacy rate in Rwanda was 71% for those aged 15 years and above. Literate are considered the individuals knowing how to read and write (King, 2007). The number of primary school pupils is 1,636, 563, and the number of secondary school pupils is 179,153.
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Economic System of Rwanda
The stability of a nation is determined by its economic status (Enoch, 2007). Rwanda has had a fluctuating economic system since the 1994 genocide. During that time, a lot of property was destroyed, and many people were killed. Economic system involves the mechanisms of production, distribution and consumption of various resources, necessary for sustenance of the human livelihood. Rwanda’s sustenance is based on agriculture. It should be noted that approximately 905,000 of the population engage in it. n fact, this is mainly because its industrial sector is noncompetitive and has very limited resources available for exploitation. Another factor that hinders the development of industrial sector is lack of the access to international markets and resources as Rwanda is landlocked (Enoch, 2007). Rwanda operates more with import, which ranges from foodstuffs to machinery, than export.
Africa as a continent has almost all the necessary resources required for development but still faces hunger as one of the major problems. Due to the aspect of capitalism practiced by the majority of African nations, including Rwanda, the problem of hunger is still present. Rwanda, with its capitalistic system of distribution, applies the policy of acquiring resources according to an individual’s ability to pay for the same. Considering that, the overall GDP is very low, and Rwanda depends mostly on import rather than producing goods by itself. Therefore, it is substantively clear that a huge number of people is not able to acquire various necessary resources, which makes the country’s economy very unstable (Enoch, 2007). One of the reasons for that situation is exploitative dependence which is contributed to by the capitalistic system of distribution.
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Social Control System in Rwanda
Rwanda has developed a presidential system of government established by the constitution. However, in the different ethnic groups, various regulatory mechanisms are used to establish order. Other than the constitution, this is the supreme governing law of the Rwandese land that provides regulations within the smaller ccultural units. The regulations determine the various roles and duties that individuals are to perform based on gender, age and race (Johnson & Ching, 1997). Such distinctions have mainly been attributed to fostering order and peace among the citizens. Recovering from the effects of civil wars and the 1994 genocide that resulted in the loss of life of approximately 1,000,000 Rwandese is another major task of the Rwandan government.
Rwandan society is characterized by hierarchical system ranging from the parliament downwards. Such particular type of system plays a substantive role in ensuring that the public remains obedient and complies with all the developed rules and regulations (Johnson & Ching, 1997). There also exists a highly developed civil society, which is the most developed in Africa. Its main duty is to check whether the government obeys the rule of law in their activities. The civil society has managed to prevent chaos in the nation since the times of genocide. With the assistance of the international NGOs, Rwanda has been able to organize strong social control systems for its society (Johnson & Ching, 1997).
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It should be mentioned that despite being one of the African nations that have experienced great challenges in the past, Rwanda has taken great efforts to bring about stability in the nation. The country has been able to develop appropriate structures in different spheres that developed the mechanisms necessary for rebuilding the nation. In fact, these mechanisms have effectively worked in building the economy and establishing the appropriate social systems.
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